As a beginner in bodybuilding, you may be wondering where to start, what types of steroids are safe and effective, how to avoid potential side effects, and what are the benefits of using steroids. Steroids increase protein synthesis and nitrogen retention in the muscle tissue, increasing muscle and strength gains.
However, starting your first steroid cycle can be overwhelming, especially with many options. This article will answer your questions and discuss the best beginner steroid cycles to help you make the right choice.
It’s also vital to note that using steroids comes with risks, and you should always consult with a healthcare professional before starting your first steroid cycle. With that said, let’s dive into the best steroids for beginners.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY FIRST STEROID CYCLE?
A First Steroid Cycle is a 4-8 week period of time during which an athlete or bodybuilder uses steroids to optimize the effects of their workouts and reduce the intensity of the side-effects. After the cycle is complete, the athlete or bodybuilder will go into Post-Cycle therapy to overcome the effects of any mood changes that come as a side-effect of many anabolic steroids.
CYCLING, STACKING, AND PYRAMIDING STEROIDS
Cycling, stacking, and pyramiding are the three standard methods of using steroids in a structured way to achieve specific goals. Bodybuilders and athletes often use these methods to maximize gains while minimizing the potential steroid side effects.
Steroid cycles involve using anabolic steroids over a specific period, followed by a rest period or a post-cycle therapy to help restore the body’s natural hormonal balance. Cycling allows the body to adjust to the steroids’ effects, preventing the body from becoming resistant to them. This also helps to minimize its potential side effects.
Stacking involves combining different steroids to achieve a synergistic effect. This method can effectively achieve specific goals, such as bulking or cutting, but it also increases the potential risks of steroid use.
Pyramiding involves starting with a low dose of steroids and gradually increasing the dosage over time. The idea behind this method is to allow the body to adjust to the steroids gradually, reducing the potential for side effects.
However, pyramiding is not recommended as it can result in higher overall steroid exposure, increasing the potential risks of steroid use.
INJECTABLE AND ORAL STEROIDS FOR BEGINNERS
When choosing between injectable and oral steroids in Canada, weighing benefits and potential risks is best. Injectable steroids are oil-based solutions injected into the muscle, while oral steroids are taken in pill form.
Injectable steroids are generally more effective than oral form because they have a longer half-life and are absorbed more efficiently by the body. An injectable steroid is also less toxic to the liver than other steroids since they bypass the liver and are metabolized by the body more slowly.
However, the downside to injectable steroids is that they require a needle and syringe, which can be intimidating for beginners.
On the other hand, oral anabolic steroid is more convenient for beginners since they can be taken in their oral form. They also tend to have fewer side effects than injectable steroids but can be more toxic to the liver. The body absorbs the oral steroid more quickly, leading to a more rapid onset of effects but a shorter duration of action.
For beginners, it is commonly recommended to be mindful of their anabolic steroid intake and begin with a well-planned first steroid cycle. Starting with a beginner steroid cycle can help individuals to monitor and regulate their steroid use to minimize the risk of side effects.
It’s essential to approach steroid use cautiously, as the misuse or abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids can lead to severe health consequences.
When considering using steroids in Canada, always remember that they are illegal without a prescription. Keep away from illegal steroids, as they may endanger your health. Whether you use the injectable or oral form, always ensure you purchase from a reputable online Anabolic Steroid shop and consult a healthcare professional before starting any anabolic steroid cycles.
WHAT ARE THE BEST STEROIDS TO USE DURING A BEGINNER CYCLE?
Are you looking to enhance your bodybuilding results but concerned about the legal status of steroids in Canada? Or maybe you’re worried about the potential side effects of using steroids? Regarding steroids in Canada, it’s essential to consider the legal implications of use.
BULKING STEROIDS FOR BEGINNERS
If you want lean mass gain quickly, a bulking steroid cycle may suit you. One of the best steroids for bulking is Dianabol, a fast-acting oral anabolic steroid that can provide incredible gains quickly. Dianabol is also relatively mild compared to other steroids, making it one of the best steroids for beginners.
Another option for the best steroids for beginners is testosterone, which is the foundation of all steroid cycles. Testosterone is an excellent steroid for bulking and can help you gain lean mass and strength and even improve your sex drive.
As a beginner, you may want to start with a lower dose of testosterone and work your way up. You will notice results quickly and continue to see benefits as long as you put in the effort at the gym.
CUTTING STEROIDS FOR BEGINNERS
If you want to burn fat and get ripped, choose cutting steroids for your first steroid cycle. One of the best steroids for cutting is Winstrol, which can help you lose fat while preserving lean muscle mass. Winstrol is also relatively mild and safe for beginners to use.
Looking for that ripped beach body? Then this is the perfect steroid cycle for you: Super Shredder Cycle
RECOMMENDED FIRST STEROID CYCLES FOR BEGINNERS
For beginners, starting with a simple steroid cycle stack that includes low dosages of a few steroids to minimize potential side effects while maximizing gains is essential. Here are some recommended cycles of the best steroids for beginners:
- Deca Durabolin cycle
- Winstrol cycles for beginners
- Anavar cycles
- Testosterone cycles
- Dianabol Cycles
DECA DURABOLIN (BEST FOR LEAN MUSCLE MASS DEVELOPMENT)
Deca Durabolin, known as Nandrolone Decanoate, is a popular bulking steroid and one of the best steroids for beginners. Bodybuilders and athletes use intramuscular injections while taking it to boost muscle growth. The cycle length for Deca Durabolin is typically between 8 to 12 weeks.
DECA DURABOLIN DOSAGE
The recommended dosage for Deca Durabolin is between 200 to 600 mg per week, split into two doses. Beginners are advised to start with a lower 200 to 300 mg dose per week and gradually increase it over time.
DECA DURABOLIN SIDE EFFECTS
The most common side effects of Deca Durabolin include:
- Increased risk of estrogenic side effects such as nausea, breast swelling, water retention, and bloating.
- Androgenic side effects include acne, oily skin, and male baldness.
- Decreased testosterone levels, sexual and reproductive disorders, loss of libido, and mood changes.
- Liver toxicity in rare cases.
TESTOSTERONE ENANTHATE BENEFITS FOR FIRST STEROID CYCLE
Testosterone Enanthate is one of the best steroids for beginners for muscle building and strength. It promotes protein synthesis, enhances nitrogen retention, and increases red blood cells, muscle gains and endurance.
It also helps to boost libido and sex drive and can improve overall energy and mood. The Testosterone Enanthate steroid cycle length is typically between 10 to 15 weeks.
TESTOSTERONE ENANTHATE DOSAGE
The recommended dosage for Testosterone Enanthate for beginners is between 200 to 500 mg per week, split into two doses. Beginners are advised to start with a lower dose of 200 mg per week and gradually increase it over time.
For TRT in adult males with low levels of testosterone, the typical dosage range starts from 100mg to 200mg per week, administered via injection. In weeks to follow, it may go from 150mg to 300mg per week.
However, dosages may vary based on individual needs, and dosage per week may need to be adjusted over time.
For performance enhancement purposes, dosages are often higher and may range from 200mg to 600mg per week, with some individuals using even higher dosages. However, these dosages are not recommended for long-term use and can lead to adverse effects on health.
It’s important to note that dosages should always be determined by a qualified medical professional based on individual needs and medical history.
TESTOSTERONE ENANTHATE SIDE EFFECTS
The most common side effects of Testosterone Enanthate include:
- Increased risk of estrogenic side effects such as nausea, breast swelling, water retention, and bloating.
- Androgenic side effects include acne, oily skin, and male baldness.
- Decreased red blood cell count, testosterone levels, erectile dysfunction, sexual and reproductive disorders, loss of libido, and mood changes.
- Increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in individuals with pre-existing conditions. Performing routine exercises 3-5 times per week would be best.
It’s crucial to use Testosterone Enanthate in moderation, do follow the recommended dosage (per week or per day) guidelines, and use post-cycle therapy (PCT) to help restore the body’s natural hormonal balance and minimize the risk of side effects.
TESTOSTERONE-ONLY CYCLE FOR BEGINNERS
A testosterone-only cycle is an excellent option for beginners because it’s a natural hormone that the body produces, making it well-tolerated. Start with a low dose of testosterone and gradually increase it over time to minimize potential side effects.
WINSTROL (BEST CUTTING STEROID TO BURN FAT)
Winstrol, or Stanozolol, is a favoured anabolic steroid for cutting by bodybuilders and athletes. It helps burn fat and enhance muscle tissue and strength during the cutting cycle. Winstrol is considered one of the best anabolic steroids for cutting and burning body fat. Winstrol’s first steroid cycle length is between 6-8 weeks.
Winstrol’s oral steroid form works slower than many other oral steroids. However, one of its benefits is that it does not convert to estrogen.
This is important because when some steroids convert to estrogen, it can cause gynecomastia or “man breasts” in men who use them. So, men who use Winstrol during their first steroid cycle are less likely to develop this side effect.
The dosage of Winstrol per week can vary depending on the individual’s goals, body weight, and experience with the drug. A typical Winstrol dosage per week ranges from 35mg to 75mg for men.
Women typically use lower doses of Winstrol, with a typical dosage range of 5mg to 10mg per week. Some experienced users may take up to 100mg per week, but this is not recommended for beginners. It’s crucial to monitor the body’s response to the drug and adjust the per week or per day dosage accordingly.
WINSTROL SIDE EFFECTS
The most common side effects of Winstrol include:
- Joint pain
Winstrol can cause joint pain due to its drying effect on the joints. This can be managed by using joint supplements and reducing the dosage.
- Liver damage
Winstrol is a hepatotoxic anabolic steroid which can cause liver damage with prolonged use. It’s crucial to limit the use of Winstrol to 6-8 weeks and monitor liver function regularly.
- High cholesterol
Winstrol can increase cholesterol levels, especially LDL (bad) cholesterol. It’s crucial to monitor cholesterol levels and maintain a healthy diet.
- Androgenic side effects
Winstrol can cause androgenic side effects such as acne, oily skin, and male pattern baldness.
Anavar, also known as Oxandrolone, is one of the best anabolic steroids for cutting. It’s also on the list of the most popular oral anabolic steroids among bodybuilders and athletes due to its powerful effect to help obtain a lean muscle and ripped physique.
Anavar can increase nitrogen retention in the muscle tissue, which increases the anabolic environment. It also increases red blood cell count, promoting muscle building and endurance. It’s a lighter steroid, so if needles aren’t your thing, consider the Anavar cycle to start!
Anavar is often used during cutting cycles to help increase muscle gains and strength while reducing body fat. It’s typically used in 6-8 weeks, although some users may extend the Anavar cycle to 10 weeks.
Anavar can also be used during a bulking steroid cycle, but it’s less effective than other steroids in promoting muscle growth. Moreover, Anavar is one of the most popular steroids for women due to its low risk of virilization and ability to promote muscle growth.
The dosage of Anavar per week can vary depending on several factors, including the individual’s gender, weight, experience with the drug, and desired results. For men, a typical Anavar dosage per week ranges from 20mg to 100mg. Women, however, typically use lower doses of Anavar, with a typical dosage range of 5mg to 20mg per week.
Some experienced steroid users may increase the dosage up to 150mg per week or use other steroids in combination, to maximize muscle gains.
However, this is not recommended due to the risk of side effects. Whether you take a per week or per day dosage, it’s crucial to monitor the body’s response to the drug and adjust accordingly.
ANAVAR SIDE EFFECTS
It is important to note that Anavar, like all anabolic steroids, has potential side effects, including liver damage, acne, hair loss, and hormonal imbalances. The dosage of Anavar should not exceed the recommended amount, and the duration of use should be limited to avoid adverse effects.
ANAVAR ONLY CYCLE FOR BEGINNERS
An Anavar Only Cycle refers to a bodybuilding or performance-enhancing drug (PED) regimen where the individual takes Anavar only. It is often used by beginner steroid users or those who want to avoid the potential side effects of more potent steroids.
Anavar is known for its mild androgenic properties and ability to boost muscle growth, strength, and endurance. However, its dosage should always be tailored to the individual’s goals, body weight, and experience with anabolic steroids and should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional.
It is also important to note that an Anavar Only Cycle may not be as effective for muscle building as the other steroid cycle for beginners. It may be more suitable for those looking to improve their athletic performance or achieve muscle gains.
As with any PED cycle, engaging in a proper diet, exercise, and post-cycle therapy (PCT) is essential to minimize side effects and maintain gains.
A Dianabol cycle is top on the list of beginner steroid cycles for bodybuilders and athletes looking to gain muscle mass and strength quickly.
Dianabol, also known as Methandrostenolone, promotes protein synthesis, increases nitrogen retention, and enhances glycogenolysis. This can lead to significant muscle mass and strength gains. The typical Dianabol cycle length is between 4 to 6 weeks.
For beginners, the recommended dosage for Dianabol is 20-30 mg daily. Experienced steroid users may increase the dosage to 50-80 mg daily, although this is not recommended due to the risk of side effects. It’s crucial to monitor the body’s response to the drug and adjust the dosage accordingly.
Dianabol (Dbol) is an anabolic steroid with several benefits for bodybuilders and athletes. It is generally considered a relatively mild anabolic steroid when taken in modest doses during the first cycle. That’s why it’s on the list of one of the best steroids for beginners!
Dianabol is often used during a bulking cycle to promote muscle growth and strength gains. Dianabol can also be used as a kick-starter during the first cycle of injectable steroids to help promote muscle gains.
Users can experience increased red blood cell count and more endurance during a Dianabol cycle. Dbol can help increase the production of red blood cells, improving endurance and oxygen delivery to muscles during exercise. Dbol can also help increase the body’s nitrogen retention, which is essential for muscle growth and repair.
DIANABOL SIDE EFFECTS
Dianabol’s most common side effects include liver damage, acne, hair loss, and hormonal imbalances. Prolonged use of Dianabol can also increase the risk of cardiovascular problems and may lead to more serious health conditions over time.
In addition to physical side effects, Dianabol can have psychological effects such as mood swings, irritability, and aggression. These effects can be particularly problematic for individuals who already struggle with emotional regulation or have a history of mental health issues.
ADVANCED STEROID CYCLES
Advanced steroid cycles are typically used by experienced bodybuilders and athletes who have already completed several cycles and have a solid understanding of steroid use’s potential risks and benefits. These cycles often involve using multiple steroids in combination to achieve maximum results.
For example, you can stack Anavar with Testosterone to achieve faster muscle development and body fat loss. Dianabol is a somewhat lighter steroid, so many bodybuilders stack it with testosterone enanthate to improve its efficacy.
Some experienced users do combinations of many anabolic steroids or try other steroids of higher doses. However, it is not recommended for beginners.
Advanced steroid cycles can be pretty complex and require careful planning and monitoring to minimize the risk of side effects. The dosages, timing, and duration of using anabolic steroids must be carefully considered.
Same with the use of ancillary medications to help manage potential side effects, such as aromatase inhibitors and post-cycle therapy drugs.
COMBINING STEROID CYCLES FOR CUTTING, BULKING, AND BODYBUILDING
Combining different steroid cycles is a strategy that experienced users often employ to optimize their physique for different goals, such as cutting, bulking, and bodybuilding.
Using a combination of synergistic steroids, users can achieve faster and more impressive results than with a single steroid alone.
However, this approach also requires a high level of knowledge and experience to avoid the risks of adverse side effects and to manage complex cycle protocols. Here are some of our insights:
BEST STEROID CYCLES FOR BULKING
A bulking cycle is a way to gain size and strength quickly. The advanced bulking cycles typically involve a combination of testosterone and other powerful bulking agents such as Dianabol, Deca Durabolin, and Trenbolone.
These cycles aim to maximize the growth of the muscles, strength, and endurance while minimizing fat gain and water retention. Experienced users use higher dosages and longer cycle durations than beginners. Bulking cycles are highly effective for users who maintain a healthy and responsible lifestyle.
STEROID CYCLE FOR MASS GAIN
This cycle typically involves using testosterone as a base and stacking it with a bulking steroid such as Dianabol or Deca Durabolin.
BEST STEROID STACKS FOR BODYBUILDING
A steroid stack is often the way to maximize your muscle potential. Steroid stacks for bodybuilding are a popular strategy among experienced users who want to achieve maximum gains in muscles, strength, or overall bodybuilding.
A steroid stack combines different steroids used together in a cycle to produce synergistic effects and optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks. Dosages vary based on user factors such as goals, experience, and health.
However, all steroid stacks for bodybuilding aim to enhance muscle protein synthesis and cell signalling pathways promoting the muscle’s growth and recovery. Some of the best steroid stacks for bodybuilding include:
BEST STEROID CYCLES FOR CUTTING
A cutting cycle is a way to cut fat and maintain hypertrophy. Steroid-cutting cycles are popular among experienced users who want to achieve a lean and defined physique while preserving hypertrophy and strength.
Cutting cycles typically involve using steroids with a stronger fat-burning and metabolism-boosting effect, such as Winstrol, Anavar, Clenbuterol, and Trenbolone. A cutting cycle reduces fats in the body, and water retention increases vascularity and muscle hardness and enhances overall muscle definition and separation.
Experienced users may also use other supplements and strategies, such as cardio, fasting, and thermogenic agents. This is to enhance the fat-burning effect further.
However, it’s important to note that cutting cycles also carry risks and side effects, such as liver damage, hormonal imbalances, and cardiovascular problems.
To optimize the benefits and minimize the risks, users should follow a strict cycle protocol that includes post-cycle therapy, regular bloodwork monitoring, and a healthy diet and exercise program. Some of the best cycles for cutting include:
However, it’s important to remember that steroids are not a magic solution and require a responsible approach. It’s important to remember that while steroids can help you achieve your desired physique, they come with risks. Using steroids responsibly and seeking advice from a medical professional before starting any steroid cycle is essential.
A beginner must take a gradual and responsible approach to becoming an experienced user. This involves starting with a basic cycle that includes a low dose of a single steroid and carefully monitoring its response and side effects.
Beginners should also incorporate a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition, hydration, rest, and exercise, to optimize the benefits and minimize the risks of steroid usage.
Beginners can increase cycle dose, duration, and complexity with caution. Continue education on different types of steroids and other aspects of fitness and bodybuilding. Remember to approach steroid use with caution, discipline, and dedication. Aim to achieve your physique goals while maintaining long-term health and well-being.
WHAT ARE SOME COMMON SIDE EFFECTS OF STEROID USE?
Steroids, which are artificial hormones, have legitimate medical uses for treating various conditions. However, some athletes and bodybuilders misuse steroids by using them illegally to improve their physical performance and aesthetics.
Some of the most common side effects, both short-term and long-term, of using steroids are the following:
- Acne: Steroids can cause an increase in oil production, which can lead to acne, particularly on the face, chest, and back.
- Hair loss: Steroids can cause hair loss or thinning in both men and women.
- Gynecomastia is the development of breast tissue in males due to the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.
- Water retention: Steroids can cause the body to retain excess water, leading to bloating and swelling.
- Increased appetite: Steroids can increase appetite, leading to weight gain.
- Insomnia: Steroids can interfere with sleep, making falling or staying asleep difficult.
- High blood pressure: Steroids can increase blood pressure, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke.
- High cholesterol: Steroids can cause an increase in LDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol.
- Liver damage: Certain steroids can be toxic to the liver, particularly when taken in high doses or for extended periods.
- Mood changes: Steroids can affect the brain and cause mood swings, irritability, and aggression, particularly in higher doses.
- Testicular atrophy: Steroids can cause the testicles to shrink due to suppressed natural testosterone production.
- Infertility: Steroids can disrupt the production of hormones needed for reproduction, leading to infertility in men and women.
- Virilization: Women who use steroids may experience masculinizing effects such as a deepening of the voice, increased body hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.
- Increased risk of infections: Steroids can weaken the immune system, making it easier to get infections.
While steroids may have some therapeutic benefits under medical supervision, there are also potential short-term and long-term side effects when overused. Therefore, it is important to educate oneself about the potential risks of steroid usage and to use them appropriately and only under the guidance of a qualified medical professional.
WHAT IS POST CYCLE THERAPY (PCT), AND WHY IS IT NEEDED AFTER THE STEROID CYCLE?
When using steroids, it’s not just about the cycle itself. What happens after the cycle is equally important. Post Cycle Therapy, or PCT, is an essential step in the steroid cycle process, and it’s vital for maintaining your gains and minimizing the potential risks of using steroids.
Post Cycle Therapy is a protocol of medications taken after a steroid cycle to help the body regain its natural hormonal balance. During a steroid cycle, the body’s natural production of testosterone is suppressed, which can lead to various potential side effects. PCT medications help stimulate natural testosterone production and restore hormonal balance.
Without Post Cycle Therapy, the body may take much longer to recover from the steroid cycle, potentially leading to a loss of gains and prolonged side effects.
Always incorporate PCT products into your first steroid cycle plan and consult a healthcare professional for the best PCT protocol. Post Cycle Therapy is crucial whether you use steroids or other legal steroid alternatives such as SARMS.
WHAT ARE ANABOLIC STEROIDS, AND WHY DO ATHLETES AND BODYBUILDERS USE THEM?
Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones designed to mimic the effects of the male hormone testosterone in the body. Athletes and bodybuilders often use them to enhance performance and increase muscle gain and strength.
Anabolic steroids dosage are very strictly controlled because their misuse can significantly impact the body’s natural growth mechanisms and other processes. While they can provide significant benefits, they also carry potential risks, and their use is illegal in Canada without a prescription.
Steroid nandrolone is a popular performance-enhancing drug classified as an anabolic steroid. It is a synthetic form of testosterone known for its rapid muscle growth effect and strength-increasing properties. Although doctors legally prescribe the steroid nandrolone to treat various medical conditions such as anaemia and osteoporosis, it is best to follow the doctor’s prescribed dosage.
WHAT ARE SARMS?
SARMS, or Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators, are a type of performance-enhancing drug legal in Canada and many other countries.
SARMS selectively target androgen receptors in bone and muscle tissue while avoiding receptors in other organs, resulting in strength, muscle mass development, and improved recovery time.
They are safer legal steroid alternatives as they have fewer potential side effects. SARMs are less suppressive of natural testosterone levels than other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) such as anabolic steroids. However, they can still cause a significant decrease in testosterone levels.
WHAT ARE ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS?
Anabolic androgenic steroids, commonly known as AAS, are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone. Some individuals use these drugs to increase muscles, strength, and athletic performance.
However, using AAS can have serious side effects; using them should be based on a thorough understanding of the potential risks and benefits.
Additionally, anabolic steroids are considered illegal steroids to use or possess without a prescription in many countries. However, many anabolic steroids have legitimate uses in treating muscle-depleting diseases.
Overusing anabolic steroids can affect male sex characteristics and cause erectile dysfunction. Depending on the steroid cycle, the severity and likelihood of these side effects can vary.
The testosterone cycle refers to a PED regimen where an individual takes testosterone and other PEDs, such as other anabolic steroids, growth hormones, or other compounds. People often use the testosterone cycle to achieve specific performance-enhancing goals.
WHAT ARE LEGAL STEROID ALTERNATIVES?
Some bodybuilders and athletes also look for legal steroid alternatives when planning their first cycle, as they can provide similar benefits to anabolic steroids without adverse side effects.
For example, legal steroid alternatives such as D-Bal and Trenorol can help promote muscle mass and strength gains without the risk of adverse side effects. For those looking for legal steroid alternatives, SARMS are an excellent option to consider.
Whether you use anabolic steroids or legal alternatives, it’s essential to approach their use cautiously and always consult a healthcare professional before starting any cycle. If you are looking for the best Canadian steroids, always purchase from a reputable source to ensure quality and safety.
When using steroids in the beginner cycle, one must be aware of the potential risks and side effects. Take measures to minimize them. This can include using lower dosages, shorter cycle lengths, and implementing post-cycle therapy to help restore natural hormone production.
Ultimately, the best steroids for the first cycle will depend on individual goals, preferences, and health considerations. Consulting with a healthcare professional and doing thorough research can help ensure a safe and effective steroid cycle.
- Anabolic steroids by David R. Mottram BPharm, PhD, FRPharmS (Professor of Pharmacy Practice), Alan J. George BSc, PhD https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1521690X00900538
- Adverse Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: A Literature Review Giuseppe Davide Albano,Francesco Amico, Giuseppe Cocimano, Aldo Liberto, Francesca Maglietta, Massimiliano Esposito, Giuseppe Li Rosi, Nunzio Di Nunno, Monica Salerno,and Angelo Montana https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832337/